TermDefinitionRegional railway example
ActivityTasks within the project to realise project outputs (synonymous with measure)Run a railway workshop
AppropriatenessAppropriateness measures “Does the project address the needs?” Is it appropriate for the target group and the issue or problem under development?A faster rail service will reduce the travel time and presumably increase the attractiveness for passengers.
EffectivenessEffectiveness measures “Does the project achieve the desired objectives?”A faster rail service has reduced the travel time on a line by 20 %
EfficiencyEfficiency measures “Is the project cost effective? What human, time and financial resources did it use?”The increased profit through growing passenger numbers is higher than the investment costs in a faster rail service
GoalA statement of the overall aim of a project or programme, describing what difference the initiative is expected to make. To be manageable, an initiative should only have one goal.Improve marketing for a railway link
ImpactThe immediate effects of a project. Impact can be considered as short-term outcomes of a project. Changes that result from the outputs being completed.More people on the train, more participating citizens
MeasureImplemented project activity in order to realise predefined objectivesImprove a station
MilestoneA deliverable, measurable output that results from a sub-objective indicating project progress.The ticket sale increased by 5% after the webpage relaunch of a public transport association (as first step of a large marketing campaign)
NeedsThe difference between the desired and actual state of an issue.New rolling stock should replace out of date trains
QualitativeDraws mainly on ‘soft‘ data (text) and analyses individual insightsInterviews with rail experts
QuantitativeDraws mainly on ‘hard‘ data (numbers) and aims for representativenessPassenger surveys
Outcome(intangible) an mostly long-term effects of the project that should meet the project’s objectives Intended result of delivering an output.Changed participation behaviour because of more workshops with citizens´ / Growing passenger satisfaction because of convenient ticket system
Output(tangible) Services or products delivered through the projectNew station, new services, brochures, webpage
Performance indicatorA measurable item used to monitor and report changes; used to assess the extent to which Outcomes are being achieved.passenger satisfaction
ProgrammeA group of planned activities that contribute to a common strategic objective. A programme is usually further subdivided into sub-programmes or projects.Implementing a new marketing campaign
ProjectA set of small-scale planned activities that contribute to meeting the objectives of a larger programme.webpage relaunch of a public transport association as part of large marketing campaign
ResourcesTime, money, support, facilities and knowledge used to carry out an action, and not to be confused with ‘Needs’.employees, funding, …
StakeholdersRelevant people or groups that are interested or even involved in the project and its evaluationTrain operating company, local authorities
SustainabilityAims at a continuous change and maintaining generated achievements, also after the project’s end 
Target groupSpecific group of interest that is focused by the assessment approachPassenger, non-user
Monitoring1Continuous analysis of (project) progress, mostly based on quantitative dataprogress of station construction
Selected Terms of Evaluation
Source: Compilation by Citizens’ Rail project team

1What is the difference between evaluation and monitoring?

Evaluation is a structured process of collecting data and accessing a project success with regard to the content of the project substantiated in specified objectives It´s a way to assess outcome, impact, relevance and sustainability of a project. Usually evaluation takes place at completion. But it can also be placed at different stages of a project life cycle e.g. mid-term, ongoing, ex-post and even ex-ante when you design a project. Therefore you need indicators that allow you to render a ‘qualitative’ judgement of a project. The goal is to estimate the value and benefits of a project and to transfer lessons learned and provide recommendations (identified errors, success mechanisms) to other projects, project managers or stakeholders. Evaluation can also be an obligatory task defined by the sponsor of your project subsidies.

In contrast to evaluation the term monitoring means a continuous analysis of project progress or delay and achievements. You collect data and compare the effective project progress with a plan e.g. defined milestones. In others words you compare input and output in an ongoing assessment activity. The goal is to continuously update the project workflow, control the project progress and implementation stage and if necessary correct the project setting. Monitoring is an internal project management assignment whereas evaluation usually is more outward-orientated focussing on the intended project targets and how they influence stakeholders and clients (impact evaluation). Monitoring is a short term assessment and does not take into consideration the outcomes and impact unlike the evaluation process which focusses on the outcomes and sometime longer term impacts.